“Ringing the Community Belles” – Racine’s Professional Baseball Team

As the United States entered World War II in 1941, the war’s impact on American culture was felt far and wide. Aside from the obvious strains on economic and industrial production, American recreation was temporarily …

Gender Norms and The All-American Girls’ Professional Baseball League

Philip Wrigley, the gum manufacturer and owner of the Chicago Cubs, conceived of the All-American Girls’ Softball League in 1942 as World War II and its drain on manpower threatened to shut down Major League Baseball. Wrigley’s ideas about gender norms helped shape the league, from its strict rules to its uniform policies.