Jewish Immigration from Russia to Sheboygan

Most of Sheboygan’s Jews emigrated from the “Pale of Settlement,” an area of legal Jewish settlement along Russia’s western border established in 1791. Periodic violent pogroms and more stringent restrictions on Jewish lives and livelihoods imposed in 1882 touched off a wave of Jewish emigration from the Pale. Between 1881 and 1914 two million Jews left Russia for America.

Map showing Jewish settlements in the Pale of Settlement region of Russian Empire
Pale of Jewish settlement in the Russian empire until 1917. Source: Claude Zygiel / CC BY-SA (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0)

The first Russian Jews arrived in Sheboygan in the 1880s. Like many other immigrants, they often followed their “landsleit” (fellow townsmen) to settlements in the new world, with the result that many of Sheboygan’s Jewish immigrants came from a relatively small area east of Vilna and north of Minsk in current-day Belarus. They settled on the northwest side of Sheboygan, in a neighborhood bounded by 13th and 15th Streets, Geele Avenue on the north, and Bluff Avenue on the south.

By the early twentieth century, Sheboygan’s thriving Jewish community rivaled the size of Milwaukee’s and supported three Orthodox synagogues, all within a few blocks of each other. Congregations initially met in members’ homes, but they acquired permanent religious buildings as soon as they could. Sheboygan’s first synagogue, Ahavas Sholem, was established in 1903 in what had been the first Catholic Church built in Sheboygan, St. Mary Magdalene.

Ahavas Sholem Synagogue
The Ahavas Sholem Synagogue in Sheboygan, Wisconsin, built in 1903. Image courtesy of the Wisconsin Historical Society, WHS 82282.

Sheboygan’s second synagogue, known as “The White Shul,” opened on the southwest corner of North 13th Street and Carl Avenue in 1910. Charles Schoenkin, one of the early Jewish immigrants to the city, settled his family a few houses down from The White Shul. Although Schoenkin worked as a peddler and scrap dealer, his son, Nathan Schoenkin, found work as a clerk at the Lakeland Manufacturing Co., a clothing factory run by the Holman family, who were pillars of the Sheboygan Jewish community. Lakeland Manufacturing and other Holman family businesses often served as entry jobs for new Jewish arrivals to Sheboygan.

Younger members of the Sheboygan jewish community in 1934 (L-R): Max Stein, Sam Goodstein, Nathan Schoenkin, and William Alpert.
Younger members of the Sheboygan jewish community in 1934 (L-R): Max Stein, Sam Goodstein, Nathan Schoenkin, and William Alpert. Source: Image courtesy of Joel Alpert. Collection of William Alpert

 

After serving in the United States military during World War II, Nathan Schoenkin joined his brothers, Gustave and Leo, in forming the Schoenkin Brothers Iron and Metal Co., a family scrap metal business that provided the economic stability to launch the next generation of children.

 

 

 

Cover of the Spring 2018 edition of Archive - features chairs from the Wisconsin Memorial Union

 

Read more about Jews in Sheboygan by checking out Rachel Pope’s article in Archive, the University of Wisconsin-Madison Undergraduate Journal of History.

 

Wisconsin Historical Society Logo

This story is part of the Curators’ Favorites Collection at the Wisconsin Historical Society. Explore the whole collection here!

 


Related Stories

People posing in front of the Norwegian Luthern Church in Juneau
Norwegian Communities in Wisconsin
An Immigrant Family in Rural Wisconsin
An Immigrant Family in Rural Wisconsin
Arpin Jewish Settlement

Related Objects

Synagogue Window from Sheboygan
Synagogue Window
Front side of Norwegian genealogical plaque
Norwegian Genealogical Plaque
a round black stone sitting in fireplace
Lefse Stone

About the Author

This story was edited and adapted from David Driscoll’s original Curators’ Favorites article


Footnotes

“Former Synagogue Will Have Star of David Preserved,” “The Sheboygan Press”, June 9, 2006.

Commemorative booklet, “25th anniversary, Congregation Beth El, 1944-1969” (Sheboygan, WI: The Congregation, 1969), WHS Library, Call Number: PAM 89- 752.

Microfilm copy of the minutes and financial records of the Adas Israel congregation, c. 1900-1931, WHS Library Micro 342 (P83-1345). Most of the contents are written in Yiddish.

“JewishGen”, a Jewish genealogical web site, hosts a very informative collection of stories, recollections and photographs of Sheboygan’s Jewish community at www.shtetlinks.jewishgen.org/Sheboygan/.

A guide to the history and culture of Jewish Belarus is at www.belarusguide.com/culture1/.